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Provident Fund is much more than just a deduction in your salary slip. This is where Provident Funds (PFs) emerge as a crucial tool, empowering individuals to build a secure nest egg for their golden years. But navigating the complexities of PFs can be tricky, leaving many with unanswered questions. This comprehensive guide delves into the world of PFs, equipping you with the knowledge and confidence to make informed decisions about your retirement planning.

What is a Provident Fund?

A Provident Fund is a long-term saving scheme where both employees and employers contribute a fixed portion of the employee's salary. These contributions accumulate over time, earning interest, and provide a lump sum payout upon retirement or under specific circumstances. Two main types of PFs exist in India:

  • Employee Provident Fund (EPF): Mandatory for most salaried employees in India, with both employee and employer contributing 12% of the basic salary (limited to ₹15,000 per month).
  • Public Provident Fund (PPF): A voluntary scheme open to all Indian citizens, offering tax benefits and attractive interest rates.

Who can join a provident fund?

  • EPF: Mandatory for all employees of establishments with 20 or more employees, earning up to ₹15,000 per month.
  • PPF: Open to all Indian citizens and Resident Indians (NRIs) with valid PAN cards.

How to invest in a provident fund

  • EPF: Both employee and employer contribute 12% of the basic salary (capped at ₹15,000), with an additional 8.33% contributed by the employer towards pension (EPS).
  • PPF: Individuals can contribute voluntarily between ₹500 and ₹1.5 lakh per year.
  • Investment: EPF funds are invested in a mix of debt and equity instruments, while PPF funds are invested primarily in government securities.

Benefits of Provident Funds

  • Tax Benefits: EPF contributions qualify for tax deductions under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act. PPF contributions also enjoy tax benefits and tax-free maturity.
  • Interest Earned: Both EPF and PPF offer attractive interest rates, compounding year-on-year to grow your corpus.
  • Partial Withdrawal Option: EPF allows partial withdrawals for specific purposes like medical emergencies or children's education after completing five years of service.
  • Lump Sum Maturity: Both EPF and PPF provide a lump sum maturity amount upon retirement or under specific circumstances.

Things to consider

  • Lock-in Period: EPF has a lock-in period until retirement or specific withdrawal conditions are met. PPF has a 15-year lock-in period, with partial withdrawals allowed after seven years.
  • Limited Investment Options: Unlike other retirement schemes, PFs offer limited investment options.
  • Taxation on Maturity: Depending on the withdrawal options chosen, some portion of the maturity amount from EPF and PPF may be taxable.

How to plan your PF journey

  • Estimate Your Retirement Needs: Understand your desired lifestyle and monthly income in retirement to determine the corpus you need to accumulate.
  • Start Early and Contribute Regularly: The power of compounding works wonders! Starting early and contributing consistently allows your corpus to grow significantly over time.
  • Explore Additional Options: While PFs are valuable tools, consider diversifying your retirement portfolio with other investments like equity mutual funds or real estate to create a well-rounded plan.
  • Seek Professional Advice: A financial advisor can help you assess your individual needs, determine your risk tolerance, and create a personalised retirement plan that incorporates PFs and other suitable investment options.


Provident Funds are valuable tools for retirement planning in India. Understanding their features, benefits, and limitations empowers you to make informed decisions and utilise them effectively to build a secure and fulfilling future.

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